Gotos in Python

Posted on March 6, 2016

Don’t let the class keyword fool you; in Python, types are created dynamically. Besides introducing a new namespace, the class syntax merely establishes a context in which function declarations are given special treatment.

This class declaration

class A:
    def __init__(self):
        self.some_property = "Hello world!"

    def say_hello(self):

    def some_property(self):
        return self._some_property

    def some_property(self, value):
        self._some_property = value

is in fact equivalent to the following setup using the type function

def __init__(self):
    self.some_property = "Hello world!"

def say_hello(self):

def some_property(self):
    return self._some_property

def some_property(self, value):
    self._some_property = value

A = type(
        tuple(), {
            '__init__': __init__,
            'say_hello': say_hello,
            'some_property': some_property,

In both cases, the behaviour is the same;

a = A()

will both simply print Hello world!.

The type function

The type function can be used in two ways.

First, it can be used to retrieve the type of a value.

python> type(a)
<class '__main__.A'>

Second, it can be used ot create a new type.

python> type('A', tuple(), {})
<class '__main__.A'>

You guessed it; the string argument is simply the __name__ of the new type. The other two arguments are a bit more mysterious.

The tuple() argument represents the base classes that the new type will inherit from as well as object.

Finally, the dictionary argument specifies the methods of the class.

Simulating gotos with exceptions

With the preliminaries out of the way, we can get to the fun part.

All control flow mechanisms are simply controlled gotos. try/except is no different. In the case of exception handling though, the connection is more obvious: the exception type handled by the except block is the label that we can jump to, and raise is the goto operator. The problem with just using built-in exception types like ValueError or RuntimeError is twofold. First, if there’s any legitimate error-handling logic present, our new goto logic will trample it. This means that anyone wanting to use exceptions as gotos (God forbid) will need to pick an exception that they’re sure won’t be raised by the normal operation of the code in the try block. This can be hard if not practically impossible.

That’s precisely where type comes in.

From the above discussion, we know how to create a new class inheriting from Exception that we can use as a one-off that we’re guaranteed is not used by the code inside the try block. First let’s establish a certain syntactic sugar.

def label(name):
    return type("<label " + name + ">", (Exception,), {})

def goto(label):
    raise label()

The label function synthesizes a new exception type, and the goto function simply instantiates whatever’s given to it and raises it. Here’s how we can use this in practice.

done = label('error')
    # a whole lot of code
    # somewhere, nested deep in a bunch of ifs and fors and whiles, a wild goto
    # appears!
    # lots more code follows
except done:


Gotos are horrible and should never be used in the first place if you can avoid it.

More seriously though, the major drawback here compared to gotos in C for instance is that we can’t jump up. Using these fake gotos, it’s only possible to jump down. Also, there’s certainly some interpretation overhead involved in the try/except logic. But hey, this is Python, so who cares if it gets a bit slower?

It actually turns out that a similar mechanism can be expressed in Haskell, and that two-way jumping can be achieved. I’m not entirely sure it can be used to actually control the flow of execution, but I’ve seen something not unlike this used in an EDSL for representing some kind of assembly language. I remember the code looking something like the following.

    when someCondition $ goto done
    -- whole bunch of code
    done <- label
    -- some more code

Note the mdo; this requires MonadFix, which I can’t fully get my head around.

I’ve used a similar approach in my brainfuck compiler. However, because I was using free monads and free monads don’t admit a proper MonadFix instance, I had to resort to a significantly uglier strategy.

Here’s what the labels end up looking like when used. The idea behind it was to provide the primitive operations NewLabel and SetLabel in the base functor of my x86 free monad. By separating the creation of labels from the assignment of their value, I can achieve down jumps. (Otherwise we have in Haskell the opposite of the problem that we have in Python!)

Internally, what happens in my interpreter for the AsmF free monad is that I use a State monad to track how many labels have been created; each time NewLabel is used, a counter is incremented internally, and the new counter value is used as a new key added to a mapping from label numbers to addresses wrapped in Maybe. The initial value associated with the new key is Nothing. The NewLabel action produces a totally opaque Label value that can be passed around by the code of the free monad. On the other hand, SetLabel must be provided with one such Label value. In fact, these Labels just contain the value of the counter at the time they were created, which corresponds to the key in the map. The interpreter for SetLabel knows how many bytes have been emitted to the output at the time it runs, so it can fill in a Just value in the map for the key wrapped in the provided Label.

Of course, a few things can go wrong.

What’s more is that these problems, although static, will blowup at runtime rather than at compile time. Yuck!