# Haskell and Pushbullet - a tale of SMS on the command line

Posted on February 20, 2017

This post is divided in two. In the first part, I give the story of the bulk of my Haskell development in the last 8 months, culminating in some Pushbullet API bindings and client applications. In the second part, I show how you can install these client applications and enjoy writing SMS on the command line.

## The story

I first discovered Pushbullet a few years ago when a friend recommended it to me. At the time, it didn’t yet support synchronizing SMS, so my uses for it were limited. I rediscovered Pushbullet over the summer, after that feature launched; being able to send SMS using their webapp was wonderful. No more typing out texts with my thumbs on a virtual keyboard!

Around the same time, I started messing around with Servant in more depth; I published my post on token authentication. The current generalized authentication combinators in Servant are implemented using a technique similar to the one I developed.

In the fall, I returned to school. Since my first year in university, I’ve kept all my school work in a repository hosted on Github. Since I write up all my homework in LaTeX, the files are all plain text and storing them in Git repository makes sense. When comes the time to print the assignments, I prefer to do this at school, because I can never be quite sure when the ink cartridges at home run out. Using the school printers usually costs a few cents per page. However, students in the faculty of science, like me, have a free printing allowance of a few hundred pages per semester, provided that printing is done on very specific computers in the dungeon basement of the math building. This means I need to transfer the compiled PDFs of my assignments from my computer to those computers. Of course, this could be done with a USB flash drive, but in my experience, these are easy to misplace. (Read: I have lost countless flash drives.)

Two summers ago, I founded a company with some buddies. We got accepted to a startup program offered by our school, and our company got approved for AWS Activate. The company didn’t pan out in the end, and we stopped working on it come the fall when classes resumed. However, I found myself in possession of a few thousand dollars of AWS credits with nothing really to spend it on. I’ve been coasting on those credits since then to run a number of machines on EC2 and host various servers for myself and my buddies. Among them is just a simple web server where I can dump files.

Hence rather than use easy-to-lose USB flash drives to copy my compiled assignments from my computer to the school computers, I just transfer the relevant PDFs to print to my web server using rsync. Then, I type out the resulting URL into a browser on a free-printing-enabled school computer.

This process still isn’t great. It requires me to have the foresight to copy the compiled PDF to my server at home, or to make sure to bring my laptop to school. At the time I was still working at OOHLALA Mobile, so my laptop was my work laptop, a 13-inch late 2013 Macbook Pro. That machine is somewhat clunky, so I tried to leave it at the office as much as possible.

To solve this, I looked to Github webhooks, which cause HTTP requests to be sent by Github when certain events occur on repositories. I figured I could write a program that would listen for webhooks indicating pushes to my school repository, and upon receiving one pull the latest commit of that repo and run a makefile in the repository root. The makefile would do the hard work of actually compiling all the assignments in the repository. Then, this checked out copy of the repository with all assignments compiled could be made available over HTTP.

After implementing the first iteration of the webservice to listen for the webhooks, I factored out the special logic for handling Github webhooks into servant-github-webhook. This was my first ever published Haskell library! This was also my first foray into more advanced type-level hacking in Haskell.

One day, I pushed some changes from home to my school repository after finishing up an assignment, went off the school, logged on to one of the blessed free printing quote computers, and got ready to print. Yet when I typed the URL into the browser, I got a 404 error!

It turns out that the build had failed on my server. (At that moment I rediscovered how bad things can get when your development and production environments are different, even if only slightly.)

I needed a way to know whether the build on the server succeeded or not, which brings us all the way back to the very beginning of this post.

Pushbullet is a pretty cool service. It can be used as a simple way to add notifications to your applications, to send and receive SMS from devices other than a phone, and to mirror notifications between devices, among other things.

I figured that Pushbullet, since it was already installed on my phone at that point, would be the simplest way to make my webservice notify me of the status of the build. I wrote up some barebones bindings using servant-client to the Pushbullet API. Shortly later, I was writing the commit to add Pushbullet integration to my school repository’s continuous integration webservice.

In looking at the documentation of the Pushbullet API, I saw that it wouldn’t be much extra work to add bindings for the SMS-related endpoints. I wrote tpb to wrap the API calls. At last I could stop using the clunky and memory hungry Pushbullet webapp to send and read SMS!

However, I was still missing one piece of the puzzle. The Pushbullet HTTP API does not provide a nice way to determine when new SMS have been received. I say “nice” because it would be straightforward albeit tedious to poll the SMS endpoint and keep a running diff of the output to determine when new SMS have been received. This strategy has the downside of consuming a lot of the API usage quota to get decent notification delivery speeds.

Luckily, the folks over at Pushbullet thought of this one. To receive realtime events, it suffices to hook into their realtime event stream, which is available over a websocket connection. However, it didn’t make sense to add this functionality to tpb itself at this point. tpb is a batch processing program. It has the structure main = getInput >>= sanitizeInput >>= computeStuff, (seriously) which is not the structure of a long-running process to send desktop notifications.

I instead wrote a separate executable called pb-notify with some more dependencies. This new executable is just 50 lines of code, almost half of which are just imports!

## SMS on the command line

### Installation

I’ve published a package to the AUR that builds tpb and pb-notify HEAD from git. If you’re running Arch Linux, I’d say this is the easiest way to install everything.

Otherwise, the safest way to build tpb and pb-notify is using cabal.

git clone https://github.com/tsani/tpb
cd tpb
cabal new-build
# if you're running an older version:
cabal sandbox init
cabal install --only-dependencies
cabal build

This will create the two binaries tpb and pb-notify under dist or dist-newstyle depending on whether you used build or new-build, respectively. Copy these to a directory in your PATH.

Finally, since the command line interface for tpb itself is a bit clunky (lots of --long-form options for even simple things) there is a helper script scripts/sms. Copy this script to a directory in your PATH as well.

### Configuration

For simple usage, tpb and pb-notify are configured via environment variables.

First, you need to generate a Pushbullet API key. Log in to Pushbullet’s web application and go to the settings tab. Click “Create Access Token” to obtain an API key. In your .bash_profile (or .zshenv or whatever) add:

export PUSHBULLET_KEY="<API KEY>"

Now basic functionality is available in tpb. List your Pushbullet-connected devices with tpb --jsv devices list. Take note of the ID of the device you would like to use to send SMS. In same file as before, add:

export PUSHBULLET_DEVICE="<DEVICE ID>"

### Usage

#### pb-notify

With PUSHBULLET_KEY set, run pb-notify. That’s it.

The notifications are sent via libnotify, so you need to have a libnotify-compatible notification application running. On “big” distros, such an application is usually built-in. If your distro does not have a built-in notification delivery application, I recommend dunst.

##### BONUS: notification sound with dunst

If you do decide to use dunst, you can get it to play a sound specifically for pb-notify!

Create the script pb-notify-sfx.sh somewhere in your path with the following contents.

#!/bin/bash

exec paplay "${XDG_DATA_HOME:-$HOME/.local/share}/pb-notify/notify-sfx.wav"

(This assumes you’re using Pulseaudio, which most modern Linux systems do.) You can use any audio file you like. It doesn’t necessarily have to be a WAV file either. I didn’t like any of the notification sounds I found, so I made one. Place the audio file in $XDG_DATA_HOME/pb-notify (that variable defaults to $HOME/.local/share) and adjust the file name in pb-notify-sfx.sh if you chose a different notification sound from mine.

In your dunstrc (usually \$HOME/.config/dunst/dunstrc), add the following section.

[pb-notify]
appname = pb-notify
script = pb-notify-sfx.sh

Now whenever pb-notify sends a notification, dunst will play a sound!

#### tpb

tpb shouldn’t really be used directly, because of its clunky command line syntax. Instead, it’s easiest to use the sms bash script bundled with tpb. Whereas pb-notify only needed the PUSHBULLET_KEY environment variable, sms needs both that variable as well as PUSHBULLET_DEVICE to work.

Here are the supported commands:

• sms or sms threads - list all SMS conversations, most recent last.
• sms from NAME - show the contents of the most recent thread with at least one recipient whose name matches NAME.
• sms to NAME - send a message to the phone number of the recipient whose name matches NAME in the most recent thread.

The NAME matching just does a case-insensitive substring check.

Of course, this most-recent-first matching is undesirable when you have SMS threads with different people having the same name. I don’t have any friends that problem, so I didn’t implement a feature to select further matches.

There is a bug/feature with this name matching. If you just run sms from it will print the contents of the thread with the most recent activity, since the empty string is trivially a substring of anything.